Neonatal maladjustment syndrome (NMS), also known as hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, perinatal asphyxia syndrome, and neonatal encephalopathy [1,2], is reportedly the most common problem observed in neonatal foals during the first 72 h after birth . Neurological signs of NMS can range from subtle to severe and may include convulsions/seizures, weakness, and behavioural abnormalities . While in severe cases an early death is likely, recovery is possible with human
intervention, especially in less severe cases [1,4]. Neonatal maladjustment syndrome is mainly attributed to cerebral hypoxia and ischaemia leading to neuronal cell death shortly before, during
or after birth [1,2,4]. Signs of central nervous system (CNS) disease in equine neonatal patients have been attributed to hypoxic encephalopathy in 92% of cases, of which 59% experienced dystocia or premature placental separation . Other possible causes may include post natal persistence
of or reversion to an inhibited fetal state of cerebral cortical function  and meningitis, congenital lesions, CNS haemorrhage or oedema, metabolic insults, sepsis, endotoxins, and in utero infections . Thus, NMS appears to represent a number of different but related conditions that reflect untoward responses to the exceptional physiological challenges that precede, accompany and follow expulsion from the uterus at birth.
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